# Physics, Astronomy Concentration, B.S.

**Department of Physics and Astronomy**

615-898-2130

Ron Henderson, program coordinator

Ron.Henderson@mtsu.edu

All physics majors must choose to concentrate in Professional Physics, Physics Teaching, Applied Physics, or Astronomy. Each concentration specifies additional upper-division electives in physics and astronomy and other disciplines which vary by concentration. A minimum of 12 upper-division semester hours in the physics major must be taken at MTSU.

The physics core consists of 25 semester hours of physics and astronomy. Other requirements include 8 semester hours of chemistry and 8 semester hours of mathematics.

The Astronomy concentration is designed for students interested in a degree specializing in astronomy, but who do not plan to attend graduate school in astronomy or astrophysics. In addition to the physics common requirements, the following courses are required:

### Academic Map

Following is a printable, suggested four-year schedule of courses:

**Physics, Astronomy, B.S., Academic Map **

### Degree Requirements

### General Education (41 hours)

**General Education **requirements (shown in curricular listings below) include courses in Communication, History, Humanities and/or Fine Arts, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Social/Behavioral Sciences.

The following General Education courses are required for this major:

- MATH 1910 (Math)
- CHEM 1110/1111 (Nat Sci)
- PHYS 2010/2011 or PHYS 2110/2111 (Nat Sci) recommended

### Major Requirements (36 hours)

A 2.00 GPA is required in the Physics major.

### Physics Core (25 hours)

### PHYS 1010 - Physics Colloquium

**1 credit hour**

Introduces new physics and astronomy students to the physics major. Topics include degree requirements, faculty resources, research opportunities, and career options. Half of the meetings will involve one hour lectures during class, and half will involve attending talks, some of which may occur outside the scheduled class meeting time.

### PHYS 2010 - Non-Calculus-Based Physics I

**0 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1710 with a minimum grade of C (2.0) or MATH 1730 or MATH 1910. Required corequisite: PHYS 2011. Web-based discussion class to be taken in conjunction with cooperative-learning based problems lab PHYS 2011. Classical mechanics traditionally covered in a first-semester college physics course. Kinematics, forces, momentum, angular motion, calorimetry, and sound waves. Class time used for discussion of the Web-lecture material and for the administration of exams. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2010

### PHYS 2011 - Physics Problems Laboratory I

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1710 with a minimum grade of C (2.0) or MATH 1730 or MATH 1910. Required corequisite: PHYS 2010. Group-oriented problems course taken in conjunction with the Web-based discussion class PHYS 2010. Students work in groups with the topics presented in the PHYS 2010 discussion class. Covers kinematics, forces, momentum, angular motion, calorimetry, and sound waves. Skills associated with the development of experimental investigations including graphical analysis and estimation of uncertainties emphasized. Two two-and-one-half-hour laboratory sessions. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2011

OR

### PHYS 2110 - Calculus-Based Physics I

**0 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1910 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Corequisite: PHYS 2111. A calculus-based introduction to mechanics and wave motion. One and one-half hours lecture. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2110

### PHYS 2111 - Calculus-Based Physics Laboratory I

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1910 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Corequisite: PHYS 2110. Laboratory course to accompany PHYS 2110. Experiments in mechanics, waves, and thermodynamics. Data reduction, error analysis, and report writing. Two three-hour sessions. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2111

### PHYS 2020 - Non-Calculus-Based Physics II

**0 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 2011. Required corequisite: PHYS 2021. Web-based discussion class taken in conjunction with the cooperative-learning based problems lab PHYS 2021. Fundamentals of optics, modern physics, and electronics traditionally covered in a second-semester college physics course. Reflection and refraction, vision, diffraction effects, quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, and analog and digital electronics. Scheduled class time is used for discussions of the Web-lecture material and for the administration of exams. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2020

### PHYS 2021 - Physics Problems Laboratory II

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 2011. Required corequisite: PHYS 2020. Group-oriented problems course to be taken in conjunction with the Web-based discussion class PHYS 2020. Students work in groups with the topics presented in the PHYS 2020 discussion class. Optics, modern physics, and electronics traditionally covered in a second-semester college physics course. Reflection and refraction, vision, diffraction effects, quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, and analog and digital electronics. The skills associated with the development of experimental investigations including graphical analysis and estimation of uncertainties emphasized. Two two-and-one-half-hour laboratory sessions. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2021

OR

### PHYS 2120 - Calculus-Based Physics II

**0 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2111; MATH 1920 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Required corequisite: PHYS 2121. A lecture course that supplements the discussion in PHYS 2121. Topics include a microscopic view of electrical force and field, polarization, electric circuits, magnetic force and field, electric potential, symmetries of fields, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic radiation, optics, and wave phenomena. One and one-half hours lecture.

### PHYS 2121 - Calculus-Based Physics Laboratory II

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2111; MATH 1920 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Required corequisite: PHYS 2120. A laboratory-based course to accompany PHYS 2120. Includes discussions, group problem solving, and hands-on activities. Two three-hour sessions. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2121

### PHYS 3100 - Modern Physics I

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2121 and MATH 1920 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Introduction to the fundamental principles of modern physics (special relativity and quantum mechanics) and their application to atomic physics.

### PHYS 3070 - Concepts in Modern Physics I

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2121 and MATH 1920. Introduction to the concepts of twentieth-century physics. Discusses fundamental concepts of modern physics including relativity, atomic physics, wave optics, and quantum mechanics. Not intended to prepare students for graduate school in physics.

### PHYS 3110 - Modern Physics II

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3100. Survey of major topics including molecular physics, statistical physics, solid state physics and solid state devices, nuclear models, nuclear decay and reaction, and elementary particle physics.

### PHYS 3080 - Concepts in Modern Physics II

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3070 or PHYS 3100. Introduction to the concepts of twentieth-century physics. Discusses the fundamental concepts of modern physics including molecular physics, statistical distributions, solid state physics, and nuclear particle physics. Not intended to prepare students for graduate school in physics.

### PHYS 3111 - Modern Physics Laboratory

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite or corequisite: PHYS 3100. Concepts and ideas which formed the basis for an understanding of the atom and atomic phenomena. One hour lecture and one three-hour independent study laboratory.

### PHYS 3610 - Thermodynamics

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3110 and PHYS 3150 or consent of instructor. Introduction to statistical physics, kinetic theory, and thermodynamics from a unified microscopic point of view. Selected applications to various systems of interest presented.

### PHYS 3510 - Concepts in Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3080 or PHYS 3110. Introduction to the concepts of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Discusses the fundamentals of thermodynamics from both the macroscopic and microscopic points of view including entropy, enthalpy, heat engines, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energy, the partition function, and quantum statistics. Not intended to prepare students for graduate school in physics.

### PHYS 3400 - Intermediate Physics

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2121 and MATH 1920. Provides an intermediated treatment of the principles of thermodynamics, electromagnetics, and oscillatory behavior with applications. Course is not intended for physics majors participating in the Professional Physics concentration. Three hours lecture.

### PHYS 3800 - Physics Seminar

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3100. Develops and refines inquiry, communication, and presentation skills through exposure to new developments in physics, technical brief writing, and resume and job interview preparations.

### PHYS 3900 - Physics Practicum

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3100 and consent of instructor. Refines thinking, communication, and interpersonal skills through exposure to on-the-spot technical questions and a laboratory teaching experience as an assistant in an introductory physics laboratory. One hour lecture and two two-and-one-half hour experiences as a teaching assistant to be scheduled with department faculty.

### ASTR 4850 - Astronomy Research

**2 credit hours**

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Independent study of a selected research problem in astronomy. Includes experimental and/or theoretical investigation of an important yet unexplored problem or experimental design. Includes literature research and experimental design/problem formulation and execution resulting in oral and written presentation of results suitable for submission/presentation to a suitable journal/conference. One hour lecture and significant additional time working with research mentor.

### PHYS 4850 - Physics Research

**2 credit hours**

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Independent study of a selected research problem in physics. Includes experimental and/or theoretical investigation of an important, yet unexplored, problem. Includes literature research, experiment design/problem formulation and execution, resulting in oral and written presentation of results suitable for submission for publication in a suitable journal. One hour lecture and significant time working with research mentor.

### ASTR 4900 - Astronomy Senior Thesis

**2 credit hours**

Prerequisites: ASTR 4850 and consent of department chair. Focuses on a specific research/experimental design problem chosen with the consent of the thesis committee and with the potential for original discovery or for creative development of a tool, technique, or instrumentation applicable to scientific research. Independent pursuit of research objectives outlined in a research proposal results in a written thesis, the approval of which will include an oral defense. One hour lecture and independent writing of thesis.

### PHYS 4900 - Physics Senior Thesis

**2 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 4850 or PHYS 4860 and consent of department chair. Brings undergraduate experience to focus on a specific research problem; chosen with the consent of the thesis committee and with the potential for original discovery or for creative development of a tool or technique applicable to scientific research. Independent pursuit of research objectives outlined in a research proposal results in a written thesis whose approval will include an oral defense. One hour lecture and independent writing of thesis.

### Astronomy Concentration (11 hours)

### ASTR 1031 - Observing the Universe

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite or corequisite: ASTR 1030. Introduction to observational astronomy through laboratory exercises and outdoor observing activities. Topics include telescopes, the analysis of starlight, and observations of stars and planets. TBR Common Course: ASTR 1032

### ASTR 2030 - Solar System Astronomy

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1710. Comprehensive study of the solar system including models of solar and planetary formation. Analysis of the chemical makeup and physical nature of the Sun, planets, moons, and comets using mathematics and the scientific method. Focus on planetary interiors, surfaces, atmospheres, solar-planetary interactions, and solar system evolution. Discussion of spacecraft missions, future solar system exploration, and possibilities of extraterrestrial life.

### ASTR 2040 - Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1710. A comprehensive study of stellar, galactic, and cosmological astronomy. Analyzes the basic theories of stellar and galactic formation and evolution using mathematics and the scientific method. Includes the cataclysmic topics of supernovae, neutron stars, pulsars, and black holes as well as the nature of galaxies including the Milky Way galaxy, active galaxies and quasars, and the formation and evolution of our universe, the big bang theory, and the possibility of other life in the universe.

### ASTR 3400 - Fundamentals of Astrophysics

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2120 and MATH 1910. Modern astronomical knowledge and techniques using classical and modern physical principles. Possible topics include star formation, black holes and neutron stars, galaxy structure and evolution, formation of planetary systems, and large-scale structure of the universe.

### ASTR 3401 - Experimental Astronomy

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2120 or consent of instructor. Principles and techniques of astronomical data acquisition and reduction. Possible research topics involve photometry, spectroscopy, astronomical applications of electronic detectors, and computer modeling.

### Supporting Courses (12 hours)

### CHEM 1110 - General Chemistry I

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: High school chemistry. Corequisite: CHEM 1111. Fundamental concepts of atomic structure, molecular structure and bonding, chemical reactions, stoichiometric relationships, periodic properties of the elements, thermochemistry, and properties of gases. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory. TBR Common Course: CHEM 1110

### CHEM 1111 - General Chemistry I Lab

**0 credit hours**

Corequisite: CHEM 1110. TBR Common Course: CHEM 1111

### CHEM 1120 - General Chemistry II

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: C- or better in CHEM 1110/CHEM 1111. Corequisite: CHEM 1121. Chemical equilibrium, solid and liquid states of matter, chemistry of acids and bases, principles of chemical kinetics, precipitation reactions, elementary thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory. TBR Common Course: CHEM 1120

### CHEM 1121 - General Chemistry II Lab

**0 credit hours**

Corequisite: CHEM 1120.TBR Common Course: CHEM 1121

### MATH 1910 - Calculus I

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1730 with a grade of C or better or Math ACT of 26 or better or Calculus placement test score of 73 or better. An introduction to calculus with an emphasis on analysis of functions, multidisciplinary applications of calculus, and theoretical understanding of differentiation and integration. Topics include the definition of the derivative, differentiation techniques, and applications of the derivative. Calculus topics related to trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions also included. Course concludes with the fundamental theorem of calculus; the definition of antidifferentiation and the definite integral; basic applications of integrations; and introductory techniques of integration. Graphing calculator required. TBR Common Course: MATH 1910

### MATH 1920 - Calculus II

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1910 with C (2.00) or better. A topics course providing a wide view of different techniques and applications of calculus in the plane. Techniques of integration and applications of integration fully developed. Power series and Taylor series included. Emphasis on multidisciplinary applications includes Taylor series approximation; applications of integration to physics, biology, and business; and geometric and power series applications. Graphing calculator required. TBR Common Course: MATH 1920

### MATH 3120 - Differential Equations I

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1920. The solution and application of ordinary differential equations with emphasis on first order equations, second order linear equations, Laplace Transform method, systems of differential equations, and numerical methods.

### PHYS 3150 - Topics and Methods of Theoretical Physics I

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2121 and MATH 1920 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Theoretical techniques used for problem solving in physics. Reference frames and coordinate systems, approximation techniques, solution of electrical circuits and mechanical systems, simple harmonic motion and wave motion, Maxwell's equations.

### Electives (32-35 hours)

- At least 22 credit hours at 3000/4000 level

### Total hours in program: 120

### Curriculum: Physics, Astronomy

**Curricular listings include General Education requirements in Communication, History, Humanities and/or Fine Arts, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Social/Behavioral Sciences categories.**

### Freshman

### ENGL 1010 - Expository Writing

**3 credit hours**

The first General Education English course. Emphasis on learning to adapt composing processes to a variety of expository and analytic writing assignments. Minimum grade of C- required for credit.

### ENGL 1020 - Research and Argumentative Writing

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: ENGL 1010. The second General Education English course. Emphasis on analytic and argumentative writing and on locating, organizing, and using library resource materials in the writing. Minimum grade of C- required for credit.

### PHYS 1010 - Physics Colloquium

**1 credit hour**

Introduces new physics and astronomy students to the physics major. Topics include degree requirements, faculty resources, research opportunities, and career options. Half of the meetings will involve one hour lectures during class, and half will involve attending talks, some of which may occur outside the scheduled class meeting time.

### MATH 1910 - Calculus I

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1730 with a grade of C or better or Math ACT of 26 or better or Calculus placement test score of 73 or better. An introduction to calculus with an emphasis on analysis of functions, multidisciplinary applications of calculus, and theoretical understanding of differentiation and integration. Topics include the definition of the derivative, differentiation techniques, and applications of the derivative. Calculus topics related to trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions also included. Course concludes with the fundamental theorem of calculus; the definition of antidifferentiation and the definite integral; basic applications of integrations; and introductory techniques of integration. Graphing calculator required. TBR Common Course: MATH 1910

### MATH 1920 - Calculus II

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1910 with C (2.00) or better. A topics course providing a wide view of different techniques and applications of calculus in the plane. Techniques of integration and applications of integration fully developed. Power series and Taylor series included. Emphasis on multidisciplinary applications includes Taylor series approximation; applications of integration to physics, biology, and business; and geometric and power series applications. Graphing calculator required. TBR Common Course: MATH 1920

### PHYS 2020 - Non-Calculus-Based Physics II

**0 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 2011. Required corequisite: PHYS 2021. Web-based discussion class taken in conjunction with the cooperative-learning based problems lab PHYS 2021. Fundamentals of optics, modern physics, and electronics traditionally covered in a second-semester college physics course. Reflection and refraction, vision, diffraction effects, quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, and analog and digital electronics. Scheduled class time is used for discussions of the Web-lecture material and for the administration of exams. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2020

### PHYS 2021 - Physics Problems Laboratory II

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 2011. Required corequisite: PHYS 2020. Group-oriented problems course to be taken in conjunction with the Web-based discussion class PHYS 2020. Students work in groups with the topics presented in the PHYS 2020 discussion class. Optics, modern physics, and electronics traditionally covered in a second-semester college physics course. Reflection and refraction, vision, diffraction effects, quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, and analog and digital electronics. The skills associated with the development of experimental investigations including graphical analysis and estimation of uncertainties emphasized. Two two-and-one-half-hour laboratory sessions. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2021

OR

### PHYS 2120 - Calculus-Based Physics II

**0 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2111; MATH 1920 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Required corequisite: PHYS 2121. A lecture course that supplements the discussion in PHYS 2121. Topics include a microscopic view of electrical force and field, polarization, electric circuits, magnetic force and field, electric potential, symmetries of fields, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic radiation, optics, and wave phenomena. One and one-half hours lecture.

### PHYS 2121 - Calculus-Based Physics Laboratory II

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2111; MATH 1920 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Required corequisite: PHYS 2120. A laboratory-based course to accompany PHYS 2120. Includes discussions, group problem solving, and hands-on activities. Two three-hour sessions. TBR Common Course: PHYS 2121

### CHEM 1110 - General Chemistry I

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: High school chemistry. Corequisite: CHEM 1111. Fundamental concepts of atomic structure, molecular structure and bonding, chemical reactions, stoichiometric relationships, periodic properties of the elements, thermochemistry, and properties of gases. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory. TBR Common Course: CHEM 1110

### CHEM 1111 - General Chemistry I Lab

**0 credit hours**

Corequisite: CHEM 1110. TBR Common Course: CHEM 1111

### CHEM 1120 - General Chemistry II

**4 credit hours**

Prerequisite: C- or better in CHEM 1110/CHEM 1111. Corequisite: CHEM 1121. Chemical equilibrium, solid and liquid states of matter, chemistry of acids and bases, principles of chemical kinetics, precipitation reactions, elementary thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory. TBR Common Course: CHEM 1120

### CHEM 1121 - General Chemistry II Lab

**0 credit hours**

Corequisite: CHEM 1120.TBR Common Course: CHEM 1121

### Subtotal: 31 Hours

### Sophomore

### ASTR 2030 - Solar System Astronomy

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1710. Comprehensive study of the solar system including models of solar and planetary formation. Analysis of the chemical makeup and physical nature of the Sun, planets, moons, and comets using mathematics and the scientific method. Focus on planetary interiors, surfaces, atmospheres, solar-planetary interactions, and solar system evolution. Discussion of spacecraft missions, future solar system exploration, and possibilities of extraterrestrial life.

### ASTR 2040 - Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1710. A comprehensive study of stellar, galactic, and cosmological astronomy. Analyzes the basic theories of stellar and galactic formation and evolution using mathematics and the scientific method. Includes the cataclysmic topics of supernovae, neutron stars, pulsars, and black holes as well as the nature of galaxies including the Milky Way galaxy, active galaxies and quasars, and the formation and evolution of our universe, the big bang theory, and the possibility of other life in the universe.

### PHYS 3100 - Modern Physics I

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2121 and MATH 1920 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Introduction to the fundamental principles of modern physics (special relativity and quantum mechanics) and their application to atomic physics.

### PHYS 3070 - Concepts in Modern Physics I

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2121 and MATH 1920. Introduction to the concepts of twentieth-century physics. Discusses fundamental concepts of modern physics including relativity, atomic physics, wave optics, and quantum mechanics. Not intended to prepare students for graduate school in physics.

### PHYS 3110 - Modern Physics II

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3100. Survey of major topics including molecular physics, statistical physics, solid state physics and solid state devices, nuclear models, nuclear decay and reaction, and elementary particle physics.

### PHYS 3080 - Concepts in Modern Physics II

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3070 or PHYS 3100. Introduction to the concepts of twentieth-century physics. Discusses the fundamental concepts of modern physics including molecular physics, statistical distributions, solid state physics, and nuclear particle physics. Not intended to prepare students for graduate school in physics.

### PHYS 3111 - Modern Physics Laboratory

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite or corequisite: PHYS 3100. Concepts and ideas which formed the basis for an understanding of the atom and atomic phenomena. One hour lecture and one three-hour independent study laboratory.

### PHYS 3150 - Topics and Methods of Theoretical Physics I

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2121 and MATH 1920 with a minimum grade of C (2.0). Theoretical techniques used for problem solving in physics. Reference frames and coordinate systems, approximation techniques, solution of electrical circuits and mechanical systems, simple harmonic motion and wave motion, Maxwell's equations.

### MATH 3120 - Differential Equations I

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1920. The solution and application of ordinary differential equations with emphasis on first order equations, second order linear equations, Laplace Transform method, systems of differential equations, and numerical methods.

### COMM 2200 - Fundamentals of Communication

**3 credit hours**

Principles and processes of effective public oral communication including researching, critical thinking, organizing, presenting, listening, and using appropriate language. Counts as part of the General Education Communication requirement. TBR Common Course: COMM 2025

### ENGL 2020 - Themes in Literature and Culture

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: ENGL 1010 and ENGL 1020. Traces a specific theme or idea through a number of literary texts that reflect different historical and cultural contexts. Subject will vary.

### ENGL 2030 - The Experience of Literature

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: ENGL 1010 and ENGL 1020. The reading of a variety of literary types which illuminate themes and experiences common to human existence.

### HUM 2610 - Foreign Literature in Translation

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisites: ENGL 1010 and ENGL 1020. Representative works of French, German, and Hispanic authors in English translation. No foreign-language proficiency required. Carries General Education credit.

### Subtotal: 28 Hours

### Junior

### ASTR 3400 - Fundamentals of Astrophysics

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2120 and MATH 1910. Modern astronomical knowledge and techniques using classical and modern physical principles. Possible topics include star formation, black holes and neutron stars, galaxy structure and evolution, formation of planetary systems, and large-scale structure of the universe.

Elective **3 credit hours**

### PHYS 3610 - Thermodynamics

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3110 and PHYS 3150 or consent of instructor. Introduction to statistical physics, kinetic theory, and thermodynamics from a unified microscopic point of view. Selected applications to various systems of interest presented.

### PHYS 3510 - Concepts in Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3080 or PHYS 3110. Introduction to the concepts of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Discusses the fundamentals of thermodynamics from both the macroscopic and microscopic points of view including entropy, enthalpy, heat engines, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energy, the partition function, and quantum statistics. Not intended to prepare students for graduate school in physics.

### PHYS 3900 - Physics Practicum

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3100 and consent of instructor. Refines thinking, communication, and interpersonal skills through exposure to on-the-spot technical questions and a laboratory teaching experience as an assistant in an introductory physics laboratory. One hour lecture and two two-and-one-half hour experiences as a teaching assistant to be scheduled with department faculty.

### ASTR 1031 - Observing the Universe

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite or corequisite: ASTR 1030. Introduction to observational astronomy through laboratory exercises and outdoor observing activities. Topics include telescopes, the analysis of starlight, and observations of stars and planets. TBR Common Course: ASTR 1032

### ASTR 3401 - Experimental Astronomy

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2120 or consent of instructor. Principles and techniques of astronomical data acquisition and reduction. Possible research topics involve photometry, spectroscopy, astronomical applications of electronic detectors, and computer modeling.

### ASTR 2040 - Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1710. A comprehensive study of stellar, galactic, and cosmological astronomy. Analyzes the basic theories of stellar and galactic formation and evolution using mathematics and the scientific method. Includes the cataclysmic topics of supernovae, neutron stars, pulsars, and black holes as well as the nature of galaxies including the Milky Way galaxy, active galaxies and quasars, and the formation and evolution of our universe, the big bang theory, and the possibility of other life in the universe.

### ASTR 2030 - Solar System Astronomy

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: MATH 1710. Comprehensive study of the solar system including models of solar and planetary formation. Analysis of the chemical makeup and physical nature of the Sun, planets, moons, and comets using mathematics and the scientific method. Focus on planetary interiors, surfaces, atmospheres, solar-planetary interactions, and solar system evolution. Discussion of spacecraft missions, future solar system exploration, and possibilities of extraterrestrial life.

- Electives
**9 credit hours** - Social/Behavioral Sciences (2 rubrics)
**6 credit hours** - Humanities and/or Fine Arts (2 rubrics)
**6 credit hours**

### Subtotal: 32 Hours

### Senior

### ASTR 3401 - Experimental Astronomy

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisites: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2120 or consent of instructor. Principles and techniques of astronomical data acquisition and reduction. Possible research topics involve photometry, spectroscopy, astronomical applications of electronic detectors, and computer modeling.

### ASTR 1031 - Observing the Universe

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite or corequisite: ASTR 1030. Introduction to observational astronomy through laboratory exercises and outdoor observing activities. Topics include telescopes, the analysis of starlight, and observations of stars and planets. TBR Common Course: ASTR 1032

### ASTR 4850 - Astronomy Research

**2 credit hours**

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Independent study of a selected research problem in astronomy. Includes experimental and/or theoretical investigation of an important yet unexplored problem or experimental design. Includes literature research and experimental design/problem formulation and execution resulting in oral and written presentation of results suitable for submission/presentation to a suitable journal/conference. One hour lecture and significant additional time working with research mentor.

### ASTR 4900 - Astronomy Senior Thesis

**2 credit hours**

Prerequisites: ASTR 4850 and consent of department chair. Focuses on a specific research/experimental design problem chosen with the consent of the thesis committee and with the potential for original discovery or for creative development of a tool, technique, or instrumentation applicable to scientific research. Independent pursuit of research objectives outlined in a research proposal results in a written thesis, the approval of which will include an oral defense. One hour lecture and independent writing of thesis.

### PHYS 3800 - Physics Seminar

**1 credit hour**

Prerequisite: PHYS 3100. Develops and refines inquiry, communication, and presentation skills through exposure to new developments in physics, technical brief writing, and resume and job interview preparations.

- Electives
**14 credit hours**

- Elective
**3 credit hours **OR

### ASTR 3400 - Fundamentals of Astrophysics

**3 credit hours**

Prerequisite: PHYS 2021 or PHYS 2120 and MATH 1910. Modern astronomical knowledge and techniques using classical and modern physical principles. Possible topics include star formation, black holes and neutron stars, galaxy structure and evolution, formation of planetary systems, and large-scale structure of the universe.

**Choose 6 hours from:**

### HIST 2010 - Survey of United States History I

**3 credit hours**

Survey of the political, economic, social, cultural, and diplomatic phases of American life in its regional, national, and international aspects. HIST 2010 discusses the era from the beginning to 1877. HIST 2020 discusses the era from 1877 to the present. These courses are prerequisite for all advanced courses in American history and satisfy the General Education History requirement. HIST 2010 is NOT a prerequisite for HIST 2020. TBR Common Course: HIST 2010

### HIST 2020 - Survey of United States History II

**3 credit hours**

Survey of the political, economic, social, cultural, and diplomatic phases of American life in its regional, national, and international aspects. HIST 2010 discusses the era from the beginning to 1877. HIST 2020 discusses the era from 1877 to the present. These courses are prerequisite for all advanced courses in American history and satisfy the General Education History requirement. HIST 2010 is NOT a prerequisite for HIST 2020. TBR Common Course: HIST 2020

### HIST 2030 - Tennessee History

**3 credit hours**

The role of the state in the development of the nation. May be used to satisfy one part of the General Education History requirement. TBR Common Course: HIST 2030

### Subtotal: 29 Hours