Characteristics of People with Dyslexia


  • Delay in talking; articulation problems
  • Difficulty recognizing and producing rhymes
  • Difficulty remembering written information, such as letter names (also phone number and address)
  • Difficulty remembering and following directions

Grades 1-3

  • Difficulty learning sound/symbol correspondences
  • Persistent confusion of visually similar letters (b/d/p, w/m, h/n, f/t)
  • Confusion of letters whose sounds are similar (d/t, b/p, f/v)
  • Difficulty remembering basic sight vocabulary (e.g. color)
  • Problems segmenting words into individual sounds and blending sounds to form words
  • Reading and spelling errors that involve difficulties with sequencing and monitoring sound/symbol correspondence such as reversals of letters (past/pats), omissions (tip/trip), additions (slip/sip), substitutions (rip/rib) and transpositions (stop/pots)
  • Omission of grammatical endings in reading and/or writing (-s, -ed, -ing, etc.)
  • Difficulty remembering spelling words over time and applying spelling rules when writing

Grades 4-8

  • Significant difficulty reading and spelling multisyllabic words, often omitting entire syllables as well as making single-sound errors
  • Lack of awareness of word structure (prefixes, roots, suffixes)
  • Frequent misreading of common sight words (where, there, what, then, when, etc.)
  • Difficulty with reading comprehension and learning new information from text because of underlying word recognition difficulties
  • Difficulty in comprehension of text because of underlying oral language problems affecting vocabulary and grammar
  • Significant difficulty in writing related to problems in spelling and organization

High School, College, and Adult

  • Continued difficulty with word recognition that significantly affect acquisition of knowledge and ability to analyze written material
  • Slow rate of reading
  • Continued difficulty with spelling and written composition
  • Difficulty taking notes in class
  • Trouble learning a foreign language