Inhwa Kim, Ph.D. - Economics

Inhwa Kim

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Inhwa Kim, Ph.D. successfully defended her economics
dissertation, "Behavioral Barriers for Financial Choices,"
at Middle Tennessee State University in October 2021.

She received her M.A. in Economics in 2018 and a M.S.
in Professional-Biostatistics in 2015 from MTSU. She also
earned her Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics while studying at
Pukyong National University in South Korea. Inhwa’s research
interests include Applied Microeconomics, Behavioral and
Experimental Economics, Finance, and International Trade.



Middle Tennessee State University — Murfreesboro, TN

  • Ph.D. Economics, 2021
  • M.A. in Economics, 2018
  • M.S. in Professional-Biostatistics, 2015

Pukyong National University — Busan, Korea

  • Ph.D. Applied Mathematics, 2002
  • M.S. in Applied Mathematics, 1996
  • B.S. in Applied Mathematics, 1994

Work Experience

Middle Tennessee State University — Murfreesboro, TN

  • Instructor, Spring 2019 – present
  • Research Assistant, Fall 2020 – present
  • Teaching Assistant, Spring 2017 - Summer 2020
  • Adjunct Professor, Fall 2016

Tennessee Center for Dyslexia — Murfreesboro, TN

  • Data Analyst, Spring 2015

Kyonggi National University — Korea

  • Instructor, Spring 2010 - Fall 2012

Ajou University — Korea

  • Instructor, Fall 2009 - Fall 2012

Pukyong National University — Korea

  • Instructor, Spring 2000 - Fall 2008

Teaching Experience


  • Principle of Macroeconomics (in person / online courses), Spring 2019, Fall 2020
  • Principle of Microeconomics (in person / online courses), Fall 2019, Fall 2020
  • Statistics, 2009 - 2012
  • Calculus, 2000 - 2008, 2009 - 2012
  • Linear Algebra, 2010 - 2012
  • Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 2010 - 2012

Adjunct Professor

  • Finite Mathematics, Fall 2016

Research Assistant

  • Economic and Finance Department, MTSU Fall 2020 - Summer 2021

Teaching Assistant

  • Economic and Finance Department, MTSU Spring 2017 - Spring 2020
    Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Econometrics, Advanced mathematical methods for Economics.
  • Mathematic Department, MTSU Fall 2013 - Spring 2015
    Statistical Analysis, General Mathematics courses, Research Methodology

Non-Academic Working Experience

Analyst in Tennessee Center for Dyslexia - 2015

  • Researching and testing on some specific questionnaires of the Dyslexia screening tests with statistical
    and analytical tools such as R or SAS.
  • Gather information about the universalities, particularities, and differences of point of views between
    parents and teachers for the dyslexia screening questionnaires.

MTSU Library Assistant - 2013

  • Assist students

Honors & Awards

Middle Tennessee State University

  • Political Economy Research Institute Dissertation Fellowship, Fall 2020 - Summer 2021
  • Political Economy Research Institute Ph.D. Summer Fellowship, Summer 2020
  • Graduate Assistantship, Fall 2013 - Spring 2015, Spring 2017- present
  • Award for the International Global Scholar, Fall 2016

Pukyong National University

  • Graduate Assistantship, Spring 1994 - Fall 1998
  • Academic Outstanding, Award 1990 - 1993

Research Papers in Progress

Job Market Paper: “Irrationality under Uncertainty: how you can make better forecast” with Dr. Keith Gamble

The present is easier to “forecast” than the future. Many researchers have theoretically emphasized the importance of the discount rate in evaluating present versus future utility and many experiments have been devised to investigate what Kahneman and Tversky (1973, 1979, 1986) claim in the prospect theory. This study aims at understanding the role of subjective probabilistic inference in updating information for decision-making procedures under uncertainty. Using hypothetical survey experiments, we investigate the effects of subjective probabilistic inference on intertemporal choices. By adding uncertainty on trade-offs in decision-making criteria, it induces more inconsistent present preferences. We find that subjective probabilistic inference had an effect on a given acquisition of information.
Subjective probabilistic inference plays a central role in many everyday cases of forecasting, and as a result of forecasting exert substantive constraints on cognitive processes, shaping a type of restriction or stimulus in decision-making procedures. Under uncertainty, time preference is based on the hidden choice criteria formed by subjective probabilistic inference and result from shaping the combination of "fear of losses" and "capability of applying information".

Working Paper: “Subjective Inferences” with Dr. Keith Gamble

The purpose of this study is to build a foundation that allows us to draw possible explanations of choice behaviors which can be represented by time preferences or risk preferences. To conduct a dynamic preference reversal experiment is also the goal of this study. Using subjective Bayesian update analysis, each agent's different foresight ability for future returns is the key possibility in intertemporal choices. We focus on statistical inference abilities based on the Bayesian analysis. We find that base-rate fallacy negatively affects people's ability to update information which results in different foresight. These effects are thought to be unconsciously reflected in the results chosen by each individual. Our framework presents the conditions of preference arising from incomplete predictions for the future. It explains that the risk preference due to uncertainty and the individual’s probabilistic inference influence the difference in forecasts for each individual’s future reward, which reveals the present preference or reversal of time preference.

Working Paper: “Mortgage: should I buy this mortgage points?”

The disease epidemic has plagued human society, at least from the beginning of record-breaking history. As COVID-19 began to spread throughout the United States in 2020, each household have to adjusted how they live and work in response to uncertainty and they have to also quickly changed how and where they spend their money. Despite the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, U.S. mortgage performance has continued to improve, with the delinquency rate falling for 27 consecutive months and the serious delinquency rate and foreclosure rate hitting record lows, but the unemployment rate hit a record high in more than 80 years in April 2020, causing homeowners to lose their ability to pay back their monthly mortgage loans. With low interest rates creating a financially bright spot in the COVID-19 pandemic, many households are refinancing their mortgage loans to save money. Although positive factors of ultra-low interest rates have occurred, financial options such as various financial fees and time horizons that households might evaluate, have many different attributes. During decision-making procedures, they may improperly weigh these factors. Many mistakes can result from not considering good financial choices. This paper notes what characteristics of each household judge given information appropriately or improperly. I concentrate on the behavior of homeowners with mortgage, especially refinancing.

Working Paper: “Trade Liberalization and Job Polarization”, with W. Suwanprasert [submitted]

In this paper, we extend Yeaple (2005) to study the effects of trade liberalization on the job polarization phenomenon in the labor market. We show that trade liberalization causes a reallocation of workers between sectors that results in the job polarization phenomenon, and margins of change in technology and wage distribution resulting in income inequality. Additionally, this study investigates how much a reduction in transportation costs benefits high-skill and low-skill workers, while it hurts middle-skill workers. In conclusion, international trade raises the average wage in the economy, while also deepening income inequality.


  • “New criteria for Caratheodory functions,” with Y. J. Sim and N. E. Cho. 2019. Journal of
    Inequalities and Applications,
  • “Differential subordinations associated with the Dziok-Srivastava operator,” with Oros, G. I., G.
    Oros, and N. E. Cho. 2011. Math. Rep.(Bucur.), 13(63), 57-64.
  • “Sandwich-type theorems for multivalent functions associated with the Srivastava-Attiya
    operator,” with N. E. Cho and H. M. Srivastava. 2010. Applied Mathematics and Computations,
    217, 57-64.
  • “Sufficient conditions for Caratheodory functions,” with N. E. Cho. 2010. Computers &
    Mathematics with Applications, 59(6), 2067-2073.
  • “Conditions for Caratheodory functions,” with N. E. Cho. 2009. Journal of Inequalities and
    Applications, Article ID 601597.
  • “A class of integral operators preserving subordination and super-ordination,” with N. E. Cho.
    2008. Journal of Inequalities and Applications, Article ID 859105.
  • “Inclusion properties of certain classes of meromorphic functions associated with the generalized
    hypergeometric function,” with N. E. Cho. 2007. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 187(1),
  • “Angular estimates of multivalent functions defined by Ruscheweyh derivatives,” with N. E. Cho
    and O. H. Kwon. 1999. Panamerican Mathematical Journal, 9, 25-33.
  • “Angular estimates of certain multivalent functions,” with N. E. Cho, J. A. Kim, and S. H. Lee.
    1999. Mathematical Japonica, 49, 269-275.
  • “Angular estimates of certain multivalent functions,” with N. E. Cho. 1998. Tamkang Journal of
    Mathematics, 29(4), 271-277.
  • “Angular estimates of certain multivalent functions,” with N. E. Cho. 1998. Tamkang Journal of
    Mathematics, 29(1), 47-53.
  • “Angular estimates of certain multivalent functions,” with N. E. Cho, M. Nunokawa, and S. Owa.
    1998. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 29(3), 321-331.
  • “Angular estimates of certain integral operators,” with N. E. Cho and J. A. Kim. 1998.
    International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, 21(2), 369-374.
  • “Certain subclasses of meromorphic starlike functions,” with O. H. Kwon and S. K. Lee. 1997.
    Far East Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 5(4), 545-55.


Keith J. Gamble, Ph.D.
Professor, Department
of Economics & Finance,
E. Anthon Eff, Ph.D.
Professor, Department
of Economics & Finance,
Daniel J. Smith, Ph. D.
Director of PERI;
Professor, Department of
Economics & Finance,